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Sunday, 13 January 2019


In this Matlab design, channel estimation techniques are studied and investigated for a novel multicarrier modulation scheme of 5G, like UFMC, GFDM etc... UFMC is considered as a candidate for the 5th Generation of wireless communication systems, which aims at replacing OFDM and enhances system robustness and performance in relaxed synchronization condition e.g. time-frequency misalignment.

Thus, it may more efficiently support Machine Type Communication (MTC) and Internet of Things (IoT), which are considered as challenging applications for next generation of wireless communication systems. There exist many methods of channel estimation, time-frequency synchronization and equalization for classical CP-OFDM systems. Pilot-aided methods known from CP-OFDM are adopted and applied to UFMC systems. The performance of UFMC is then compared with other modulation techniques.

The fourth generation of wireless communication systems, Long Term Evolution (LTE), began to roll out around 2010. LTE and LTE-Advanced have been optimized to deliver high-rate data services to wireless users employing strict synchronism and orthogonality. It is reasonable in today’s networks typically delivering high-rate traffic to high-end devices like smart phones and tablets. However, such an approach is unfeasible for new types of wireless services such as Internet of Things and the tactile Internet. With the fast growing machine-type communications and the advent of Internet of Things, a fundamental system redesign is required for future 5G wireless communication systems. Furthermore, the strict paradigm of synchronism and orthogonality as applied in LTE is not suitable to achieve efficiency and scalability. A very diverse variety of traffic types ranging from regular high-rate traffic, sporadic small packet and urgent low latency transmission have to be dealt with in future 5G wireless communication systems. In order to reduce the signaling overhead and the battery consumption for low-end devices in 5G, they should be allowed to transmit with relaxed synchronization conditions regarding time-frequency misalignments. However, today’s most prominent multi-carrier modulation technique Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is very sensitive to time-frequency misalignments due to its comparatively high spectral side-lobe level. Filter-bank based multi-carrier (FBMC) is considered to be a future 5G candidate technology for replacing OFDM. Each subcarrier is individually filtered in FBMC to enhance robustness against inter-carrier interference (ICI) effects. However, typical FBMC systems utilize filters, whose length is multiple times of samples per multi-carrier symbol. Hence, its drawback is its long filter length. This fact makes it disadvantageous for communication in short uplink bursts, as required in potential application scenarios of 5G systems, like low latency communication or energy-efficient Machine-Type Communication (MTC). Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) is a novel multi-carrier modulation technique, which can be seen as a generalization of filtered OFDM and FBMC (in its filtered multi-tone (FMT) variant). While the entire band is filtered in filtered OFDM and each subcarrier is filtered individually in FBMC, groups of subcarriers (subband-blocks) are filtered in UFMC. By filtering a group of subcarriers, the filter length can be reduced considerably, compared to FBMC. Another advantage of UFMC systems is that quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is still applicable in UFMC (in contrast to the FBMC case), making UFMC compatible to all kinds of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). FFT-based receive processing can be also applied in UFMC systems, thus per-subcarrier equalization is still applicable like in OFDM systems. As the nature of UFMC is very close to OFDM, it is also known as Universal Filtered OFDM (UF-OFDM).

UFMC is very attractive for future 5G communication systems with its properties of reduced out-of-band radiation, compared to OFDM. However, several very important issues such as time-frequency synchronization and channel estimation have not been investigated yet. Synchronization is required at the receiver for multi-carrier systems to determine the starting position of symbols and to correct the carrier frequency offset caused by Doppler-effect and frequency mismatch of local oscillator. Additionally, without channel state information, the transmitted data cannot be recovered at the receiver. Lack of cyclic prefix in UFMC systems, the synchronization and channel estimation become challenging and interesting tasks. This is because the delay spread effect of channel causes inter-carrier-interference and inter-symbol interference for UFMC systems, while it can be completely mitigated with long enough cyclic prefix in OFDM systems.

In this Matlab design simulation, channel estimation are investigated and compared between UFMC, FBMC and GFDM systems.

Design Specifications:
Modulation Method:
• 16-QAM
• MIMO System (2x2,4x4 and 8x8)
• Rayleigh fading
• AR (Auto-Regressive) based fading
• Rician channel
Channel Estimate:
• Liner interpolation schemes of comb-type channel estimation with the LS estimate at the pilot frequencies (Linear)
• Spline interpolation schemes of comb-type channel estimation with the LS estimate at the pilot frequencies (Spline)
• Low pass interpolation schemes of comb-type channel estimation with the LS estimate at the pilot frequencies (Low Pass)
• Linear interpolation scheme for comb-type channel estimation with LMS estimate at the pilot frequencies (LMS)
• BER vs SNR based on (Linear, Spline, Low Pass, LMS)
• BER vs SNR for the number of pilots (M=64, M=128, M=256, M=512, M=1024) for a Rayleigh fading channel.
• BER vs SNR for the number of pilots (M=64, M=128, M=256, M=512, M=1024) for AR based fading channel.
• BER vs SNR for =the number of pilots (M=64, M=128, M=256, M=512, M=1024) for Rician channel.
Number of Pilots:
• M=64, M=128, M=256, M=512, M=1024 with different FFT/IFFT size

Reference Paper-1: Channel estimation and optimal pilot signals for universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) systems
Author’s Name: Lei Zhang, Chang He, Juquan Mao, Ayesha Ijaz, and Pei
Source: IEEE

Reference Paper-2: Channel Estimation Techniques Based on Pilot Arrangement in OFDM Systems
Author’s Name: Sinem Coleri, Mustafa Ergen, Anuj Puri, and Ahmad Bahai
Source: IEEE

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This Matlab design is developed by Verilog Course Team,INDIA and used as reserach work (Ph.D) by Motaz H Qaroush from Al-Quds University-University in Jerusalem, Israel.